Life Safety and Fire Fighting Systems – The weakest hyperlink

Unlike other cables, hearth resistant cables have to work even when immediately exposed to the fire to maintain essential Life Safety and Fire Fighting tools working: Fire alarms, Emergency Lighting, Emergency Communication, Fire Sprinkler pumps, Fireman’s Lift sub-main, Smoke extraction followers, Smoke dampers, Stair pressurization followers, Emergency Generator circuits and so forth.
In order to classify electrical cables as fire resistant they’re required to bear testing and certification. Perhaps the primary common hearth exams on cables were IEC 331: 1970 and later BS6387:1983 which adopted a fuel ribbon burner test to provide a flame in which cables were positioned.
Since the revision of BS6387 in 1994 there have been 11 enhancements, revisions or new take a look at standards launched by British Standards for use and software of Fire Resistant cables but none of these seem to handle the core concern that fireplace resistant cables where examined to common British and IEC flame take a look at standards usually are not required to carry out to the same fire efficiency time-temperature profiles as every other construction, system or part in a building. Specifically, where fireplace resistant constructions, techniques, partitions, hearth doors, hearth penetrations fire obstacles, floors, walls etc. are required to be hearth rated by constructing laws, they’re tested to the Standard Time Temperature protocol of BS476 components 20 to 23 (also generally recognized as ISO834-1, ASNZS1530pt4, EN1363-1 and in America and Canada ASTM E119-75).
These exams are performed in large furnaces to copy real publish flashover fire environments. Interestingly, Fire Resistant cable check requirements like BS 6387CWZ, SS299, IEC 60331 BS8343-1 and a pair of, BS8491 only require cables to be exposed to a flame in air and to decrease final take a look at temperatures (than required by BS476 pts 20 to 23). Given Fire Resistant cables are prone to be uncovered in the identical fire, and are needed to ensure all Life Safety and Fire Fighting methods remain operational, this truth is probably stunning.
Contrastingly in Germany, Belgium, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada Fire Resistant cable systems are required to be examined to the same hearth Time Temperature protocol as all other constructing components and that is the Standard Time Temperature protocol to BS476pts 20-23, IS0 834-1, EN1363-1 or ASTM E119-75 in USA.
The committees developing the standard drew on the steerage given from the International Fire Prevention Congress held in London in July 1903 and the measurements of furnace temperatures made in plenty of fire tests carried out in the UK, Germany and the United States. The checks were described in a collection of “Red Books” issued by the British Fire Prevention Committee after 1903 in addition to these from the German Royal Technical Research Laboratory. The finalization of the ASTM standard was heavily influenced by Professor I.H. Woolson, a Consulting Engineer of the USA National Board of Fire Underwriters and Chairman of the NFPA committee in Fire Resistive Construction who had carried out many exams at Columbia University and Underwriters Laboratories in Chicago. The small time temperature differences between the International ISO 834-1 check as we know it right now and the America ASTM E119 / NFPA 251 exams doubtless stemmed from this time.
Image courtesy of MICC Ltd.
The curve as we see it right now (see graph above) has turn into the usual scale for measurement of fireside check severity and has proved relevant for many above floor cellulosic buildings. When elements, structures, parts or systems are examined, the furnace temperatures are controlled to adapt to the curve with a set allowable variance and consideration for initial ambient temperatures. The standards require elements to be examined in full scale and under situations of help and loading as defined so as to characterize as accurately as potential its capabilities in service.
This Standard Time Temperature testing protocol (see graph right) is adopted by almost all nations around the globe for fireplace testing and certification of virtually all building constructions, parts, techniques and components with the interesting exception of fire resistant cables (exception in USA, Canada, Australia, Germany, Belgium and New Zealand the place fireplace resistant cable techniques are required to be examined and accredited to the Standard Time Temperature protocol, just like all different building constructions, components and components).
It is important to know that application standards from BS, IEC, ASNZS, DIN, UL and so on. where fire resistive cables are specified to be used, are only ‘minimum’ necessities. We know today that fires are not all the identical and research by Universities, Institutions and Authorities around the world have identified that Underground and some Industrial environments can exhibit very different fire profiles to these in above floor cellulosic buildings. Specifically in confined underground public areas like Road and Rail Tunnels, Underground Shopping centers, Car Parks fire temperatures can exhibit a very quick rise time and might attain temperatures properly above these in above floor buildings and in far much less time. In USA today electrical wiring systems are required by NFPA 502 (Road Tunnels, Bridges and different Limited Access Highways) to withstand hearth temperatures up to 1,350 Degrees C for 60 minutes and UK British Standard BS8519:2010 clearly identifies underground public areas similar to automobile parks as “Areas of Special Risk” where more stringent take a look at protocols for important electrical cable circuits might need to be thought-about by designers.
Standard Time Temperature curves (Europe and America) plotted in opposition to frequent BS and IEC cable tests.
Of course all underground environments whether street, rail and pedestrian tunnels, or underground public environments like shopping precincts, automotive parks etc. might exhibit completely different fireplace profiles to these in above floor buildings as a end result of In these environments the heat generated by any fire cannot escape as easily as it’d in above floor buildings thus relying more on heat and smoke extraction gear.
For เกจวัดแรงดัน4บาร์ and Rail Tunnels, Hospitals, Health care services, Underground public environments like purchasing precincts, Very High Rise, Theaters, Public Halls, Government buildings, Airports etc. that is significantly necessary. Evacuation of those public environments is often sluggish even during emergencies, and it is our accountability to make sure everyone is given the easiest chance of secure egress throughout fireplace emergencies.
It is also understood at present that copper Fire Resistant cables the place put in in galvanized steel conduit can fail prematurely throughout fireplace emergency due to a reaction between the copper conductors and zinc galvanizing inside the metallic conduit. In 2012 United Laboratories (UL®) in America removed all certification for Fire Resistive cables the place put in in galvanized metal conduit because of this:
UL® Quote: “A concern was dropped at our attention related to the performance of those merchandise within the presence of zinc. We validated this discovering. As a results of this, we modified our Guide Information to indicate that each one conduit and conduit fittings that are available contact with fireplace resistive cables should have an interior coating free of zinc”.
Time temperature profile of tunnel fires using cars, HGV trailers with completely different cargo and rail carriages. Graph extract: Haukur Ingason and Anders Lonnermark of the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute who introduced the paper at the First International Symposium in Prague 2004: Safe and Reliable Tunnels.
It would appear that some Standards authorities around the world may have to evaluate the present check methodology currently adopted for fireplace resistive cable testing and perhaps align the efficiency of Life Safety and Fire Fighting wiring techniques with that of all the opposite fireplace resistant structures, parts and methods so that Architects, building designers and engineers know that when they want a fireplace ranking that the essential wiring system shall be equally rated.
For many energy, management, communication and knowledge circuits there could be one know-how available which may meet and surpass all current fire tests and applications. It is an answer which is frequently used in demanding public buildings and has been employed reliably for over 80 years. MICC cable know-how can provide a complete and complete answer to all the problems related to the fireplace security risks of contemporary versatile natural polymer cables.
The metallic jacket, magnesium oxide insulation and conductors of MICC cables ensure the cable is effectively fire proof. Bare MICC cables don’t have any natural content so simply can not propagate flame or generate any smoke. The zero fuel-load of these MICC cables ensures no warmth is added to the hearth and no oxygen is consumed. Being inorganic these MICC cables can not generate any halogen or poisonous gasses at all together with Carbon Monoxide. MICC cable designs can meet all of the current and building fire resistance efficiency requirements in all international locations and are seeing a big improve in use globally.
Many engineers have previously considered MICC cable technology to be “old school’ but with the new research in fireplace performance MICC cable system at the moment are proven to have far superior hearth performances than any of the newer extra fashionable flexible fireplace resistant cables.
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